Bone fractures: Symptoms, Types and Treatment
Why occur broken bones, and what types of fractures can occur? And above all, what is the treatment most appropriate? These are some of the questions that we will respond to resolve some of the most common questions about fractures, whose main symptom is pain.
Most fractures occur as a result of a direct blow to an area of bone, causing a break. In other fractures, the causes act directly on the bones by compression, traction or twisting, appearing fractures by the weakest area. Fractures, as discussed below, can be of various types.
Bone fractures: types
The types of fractures, we can talk about:
Open and closed fractures: Depending on whether the bone fragments is not in contact with the outside for any injury.
Comminuted fractures: Those in which the bone is broken into several fragments.
Pathological or spontaneous fractures: These are a result of minor trauma and occur when there is a previous alteration in the bones, such as osteoporosis, lack of vitamin D (rickets), birth defects (crystal children) or the presence of cysts or tumors.
The pain is the most common symptom when a bone fracture occurs. A pain that gets worse when you try to move the affected area, even to cancel the mobility. In addition, one of the most common symptoms is the deformity, the bone fracture, sometimes accompanied by swelling and bruising.
The fracture treatment is to reduce or drop the bone fragments in the position these were in before break. Sometimes, the simple external manipulation allows placement. However, in other more severe cases, it is necessary a surgical intervention. Then immobilized for a determined time, according to the seriousness of the lesion, to avoid any slight displacement of the fragments and which can be joined properly. A plaster (plaster bandage) or, in the case of requiring an operation, metal plates and screws help restore bone mobility. In more complicated cases, it may be necessary to remove bone fragments and set prosthesis and require, further, the use of a brace to help recovery.
Fractures: first aid
Immobilize the affected area to prevent the bone fragments are mobilized area is one of the measures to be taken. Depending on the affected area, immobilization is done in a certain way.
Fractures of the collarbone, arm and forearm, the latter is fastened with a handkerchief, folded diagonally or a scarf knotted behind the neck, keeping your arm bent at the elbow and tied on the chest.
Meanwhile, in fractures of hand and fingers, as well as those that occur in the lower extremity, immobilize tying bandages the affected body part with his face bending over a hard support (table, several folded newspapers …), ranging from a proposal joint above and another below the fractured area. In the fingers the most next fingers can be used as support, and in low extremities, not affected.
Faced with possible broken ribs, avoid locking the rib area and try to move the patient semi-sitting. In skull fractures, keeping the previous position (semi-sitting). When you suspect a fracture in the cervical spine, a towel wrapped around neck and collar stands. In all other areas of the spine should avoid moving the affected person.