Typhoid fever: Infection, symptoms and treatment

The typhoid, also called enteric fever, is caused by the Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi and although the other types of strains, this is the most common and resulting in further complications. Worldwide, each year there are about 21 million affected by typhoid fever and, although good results are obtained if treated in time, from 200 thousand to 600 thousand cases are fatal.

typhoid fever

Due to the mechanisms that this bacterium uses to enter the human body, typhoid fever is more common in developing places, where the environmental condition, sanitation and hygienic infrastructures are not usually efficient and of quality. Be the children older than 5 years and young adults the most frequent in contracting this pathology.

Enteric fever is distinguished by the high body temperature that it presents in the patient and it is important to go to the doctor to diagnose it properly and grant the corresponding treatment. Therefore, in this article we want to inform you about everything regarding typhoid fever: infection, symptoms and treatment.

Ways to spread typhoid fever

The human being is the only natural organism that can house the S. typhi bacteria inside and is used to continue dispersing it in the environment, so that this microorganism can be inactive for a long time in bodies of water and in foods such as frozen seafood or eggs.

On the other hand, for a person to develop enteric fever it would have to be necessary the intake of one thousand to one million Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi to infect the organism, it is also important the level of virulence of the bacteria and the health status of the person.

The success of contagious typhoid fever is due to the mechanisms by which bacteria can enter the body, mainly through:

  • Consumption of contaminated water: Water is contaminated when it comes in contact with feces or, to a lesser extent, with the urine of an infected person. If this water does not have an adequate purification process before consuming it or its storage and handling was not correct, it is likely that the people who use it will have typhoid fever.
  • Intake of contaminated food: Poor disinfection or cooking of food contaminated with S. typhi causes the spread of typhoid fever. Bacteria can survive effectively on products exposed to sewage or handled by an affected person, such as milk, cheese, eggs, meat, seafood and vegetables.
  • Lack of personal hygiene: It is usually due to eating or preparing food without properly washing hands after having been in contact with feces or urine contaminated with S. typhi. It should be noted that a person who has recently suffered from typhoid fever may continue to discard these bacteria for a period of time, so it is still a source of infection.

Main symptoms when developing typhoid fever

Once the bacteria have entered and infected the body, it can take 6 to 14 days to start presenting symptoms, which in turn will depend on the degree of infection, the age and health of the patient or if you applied a vaccine against typhoid fever previously.

spread typhoid fever

In general, the signs of typhoid fever usually appear gradually, but it is not uncommon for children to be sudden. The symptoms of typhoid fever that can be observed are:

  • Fever, reaching up to a body temperature of 40° to 40.5°.
  • Headaches.
  • Muscle pain, often in the abdomen.
  • Pink spots, usually on the chest and abdomen. At the beginning they usually have a whitish coloration.
  • Cough and nasal constipation, mainly in children.
  • Loss of appetite.
  • There may be diarrhea at the beginning of the disease and constipation in the later stages.
  • Nausea and vomiting.
  • Dry skin.
  • Shaking chills.
  • Nosebleed.
  • Lethargy.
  • Decreased heart rate, no more than 60 beats per minute.
  • Redness of the eyes.
  • Hallucinations.
  • Increase in the size of the spleen or liver.
  • Swelling of the lymph nodes.

Treatments to fight typhoid fever

There are vaccines that can be used preventively against typhoid fever; they are usually recommended to people traveling to places where this pathology is endemic.

On the other hand, if you have a high fever or some other symptom of enteric fever, it is necessary that you visit the doctor, especially if you are in a place where there are frequent cases of this disease. Starting treatment on time reduces complications, such as bleeding or intestinal perforation, and fatal results.

The treatment for typhoid fever consists of the use of antibiotics, commonly ampicillin and chloramphenicol, under the doctor’s instructions, since there may be resistance from the bacteria to certain medicines and it is necessary to change them. In turn, the loss of fluids should be counteracted and dehydration caused by fever and diarrhea should be avoided, depending on the condition of the patient, oral or intravenous replacement can be administered. Adequate nutrition is also important; if the person cannot eat it will be necessary to supply the nutrients intravenously. When typhoid fever has reached complications it will be resolved based on the doctor’s considerations. In the case of intestinal bleeding, they are usually necessary blood transfusions.

Proven home remedies for typhoid fever

Below we will give you the best proven home remedies for typhoid fever that will help you recover from this disease. With this information you will know how to cure typhoid with home remedies.

Apple and Ginger

You can take an apple juice from the store but it will have a better effect if you add ginger scratches. 1 teaspoon of ginger in a glass of apple juice will have an incredible revitalizing effect.

Echinacea angustifolia

This flower is an excellent home remedy for typhoid fever and helps to reduce discomfort. Strengthens the tissues and immune system, excellent to fight infections. To prepare an infusion you only have to add a spoonful of flower in a glass of water and let it boil for 10 minutes. Then just strain the infusion and drink warm 2 to 3 times a day. Do not use this remedy for more than two weeks.


This home remedy will help you stop the diarrhea caused by this disease. You just have to wash, peel and chop half a carrot and leave to boil for 10 minutes in a glass of water. Mix with black pepper and drink regularly to reduce diarrhea.

Lemon and pineapple leaves

Prepare a pineapple juice by adding the pieces of peeled pineapple in a blender with water. At the same time, make an infusion with clean lemon leaves, let boil for 10 minutes. Let the infusion cool and mix in equal parts with the pineapple juice before drinking. You can drink this remedy daily.

Mint and coconut

To prepare this remedy, you should only mix 4 mint leaves with one and a half cups of coconut water. Drink this remedy 3 times a day and you will see excellent results. This remedy will have an excellent refreshing effect and will provide great relief to the discomfort.


Blueberries are an excellent ally to fight against typhoid fever. It helps to avoid diarrhea, fight bacteria and stimulate the immune system.

Lemon and honey

Lemon is an excellent natural disinfectant. And it is one of the best home remedies for typhoid fever. This stimulates the immune system and regulates the digestive system. Just squeeze the juice of a lemon in half a glass of water (cold or hot) and add one or two tablespoons of honey to sweeten. It is advisable to drink this remedy even during recovery to avoid the consequences of typhoid fever.

Raisins and plums

Enter 8 raisins with 3 pieces of plum in a glass of water. Leave to marinate overnight, and drink the liquid in the morning on an empty stomach. This remedy is recommended to prevent and relieve high fever.


Orange is excellent for treating typhoid fever because of its high vitamin C content. Eat oranges raw or in juice daily. It is recommended to continue this treatment during recovery to prevent the sequelae of typhoid fever.


Rice is an easy food to digest and one of the recommended foods to cure typhoid fever. The rice can be eaten at lunch accompanied by the ingredients of your diet against typhoid. This can help to eliminate typhoid fever.


How to cure typhoid with basil. Boil about 20 leaves of the plant and a spoonful of ginger powder in half a cup of water. Let boil until the water is reduced to the amount of half a cup and your home remedy for typhoid fever will be ready. Take this decoction once a day and see how typhoid fever is cured.